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Egipto. Descubren una calavera en el Valle de los Reyes que pudo ser del hijo primogénito de Ramsés II

Egipto. Descubren una calavera en el Valle de los Reyes que pudo ser del hijo primogénito de Ramsés II Foto: El cráneo encontrado, que puede ser del hijo de Ramsés II. Y reconstrucción del rostro de Amun-her-Khepeshef. (Discovery Channel)

Un equipo de arqueólogos ha descubierto una calavera en el Valle de los Reyes (Egipto) que puede ser del hijo primogénito del poderoso faraón Ramsés II, que dataría de hace unos 3.000 años, según detalló en Madrid el prestigioso egiptólogo Kent Weeks, que además señaló que los restos encontrados "tienen signos de muerte violenta".

Las particularidades del hallazgo se emitirán en televisión el 6 de abril a las 21,00 horas por Discovery Channel en el documental "El castigo de Ramsés: ¿Divino o terrenal?", en el marco del programa "Egiptomanía: Semana de Enigmas y Evidencias", que se proyectará del 4 al 8 de abril.

Por Olalla Cernuda, EFE/El Mundo, 18 de marzo de 2005

En el documental se exponen los recientes descubrimientos del arqueólogo Weeks y su grupo de expertos para examinar, analizar, medir y reconstruir digitalmente la calavera encontrada en la tumba KV 5, aparentemente destinada al enterramiento de los hijos más destacados del faraón Ramsés II, faraón tercero de la XIX dinastía.

La clave que delata la posibilidad de que la calavera encontrada pertenezca al príncipe heredero Amun-her-Khepeshef, el hijo primogénito de Ramsés II que nunca llegó a gobernar, sería la fractura circular detectada en uno de los laterales del cráneo, con un diámetro de entre 2 y 2,5 centímetros, que parece deberse a un golpe de piedra, previsiblemente recibido en alguna batalla.

Los restos de este cráneo se corresponderían con una persona adulta, de entre 40 y 50 años, por los datos obtenidos de las distintas pruebas a las que fueron sometidos, según explicó Weeks durante la presentación del documental, en la que también intervino el director productor del mismo, Anthony Geffen.

Otra de las pistas para sospechar que la calavera pertenece a Amun-her-Khepeshef tiene que ver con las representaciones encontradas en uno de los muros de la tumba KV 5, que tiene más de un centenar de pasadizos y es la más importante hallada hasta el momento en el Valle de los Reyes.

En todo caso la fiabilidad de que el cráneo hallado corresponda al hijo primogénito de Ramsés II es de entre el 50 y el 60%, precisó Weeks al término de la presentación del documental ante un reducido grupo de periodistas.

En 1995, el doctor Weeks descubrió la principal sección de la KV 5, una enorme "tumba perdida" en el Valle de los Reyes de Egipto. Su descubrimiento fue considerado como el más importante desde el hallazgo de Tutankamon. Durante su trabajo en este yacimiento, el equipo de arqueólogos encontró la calavera que podría pertenecer al 'hijo perdido' de Ramsés II.

La Biblia, en entredicho

De confirmarse que Amun-her-Khepeshef murió realmente a causa de un golpe de piedra quedarían en entredicho acontecimientos bíblicos como la muerte de todos los varones primogénitos en Egipto después de que el faraón desafiara las órdenes de Dios cuando le pidió que liberara a los esclavos hebreos.

Al parecer, el faraón que reinaba en Egipto entonces era Ramsés II (quien gobernó hasta pasados los ochenta años, desde los veinte), y por eso, de ser ciertas las alusiones bíblicas a las diez plagas, el hijo primogénito de ese faraón habría muerto a causa de una de ellas y no en una batalla, como parece desvelarse ahora.

En la tumba KV 5 donde se ha hallado la calavera supuestamente de Amun-her-Khepesher se encontraron también restos de otros tres esqueletos, que podrían ser hermanos de Amun-her-Khepeshef, como se deduce de los datos obtenidos por el equipo de Weeks, que utiliza la fotografía digital de alta resolución y medidas craniométricas para reunir la mayor cantidad de datos posible sobre este cráneo.

Las imágenes realizadas con un escáner y las fotografías de alta resolución tomadas fueron enviadas además a un patólogo para que estableciera las causas de la muerte de Amun-her-Khepeshef, quien rentemente era hijo también de Nefertari esposa más atractiva de Ramsés II, según los datos que se tienen de la época.

Al parecer Amun-her-Khepeshef era conocido como el más guerrero y batallador de los más de cien hijos que se le atribuyen a Ramsés II, de quienes se conoce sólo el nombre de 49 que tuvo con esposas principales.

En la tumba KV 5 aparecen inscripciones de seis de ellos, aparte del de Amun-her-Khepeshef, y representaciones de otros veinte, añadió Weeks, quien prevé retomar la investigación en esa zona del Valle de los Reyes el próximo otoño.

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Reportaje completo en Discovery Channel:

http://dsc.discovery.com/convergence/rameses/slideshow/slideshow.html

WHO WAS RAMESES THE GREAT?

In 1995, archaeologist Kent Weeks made one of the most important discoveries in the study of ancient Egypt when he uncovered the entrance to KV 5, a massive "lost tomb" in Egypt's Valley of the Kings. With more than 120 corridors and chambers already located, and more expected to be revealed during ongoing excavation, KV 5 is the largest tomb in the Valley of the Kings.
And it was here that Weeks found a skull that could be that of the firstborn son of the legendary king Rameses II, the pharaoh traditionally identified with the biblical story of Moses and the Book of Exodus.

Weeks, professor of Egyptology at American University in Cairo, discussed his find with the Discovery Channel communications department. Follow parts of that question-and-answer session in the slide show that follows.

Q: Could this skull actually be that of Amun-her-khepeshef, the firstborn son of the legendary pharaoh Rameses?

A: Kent Weeks Responds:

When I read the broken inscription that said "Amun-her," (which Weeks found in a chamber in KV 5 in the Valley of the Kings) I realized this must be the tomb of Amun-her-khepeshef, Rameses' eldest son. And then we really knew we were on to something, because the team had now found proof for just whom the tomb had been built.

A few days later, in the dim torchlight of Chamber 2, we discovered a pit and, in it, ancient human remains. It was a human skull. Obviously a very ancient one ingrained with dirt. Part of its jaw was missing, but the shape matched those I'd seen on the pharaohs before ... so I thought this must be it. I'm quite possibly holding the 3,000-year-old skull of Rameses' son and heir.

Q: Why is this discovery significant in terms of learning more about Rameses' progeny?

A: Kent Weeks Responds:

We know something about the lives of (Rameses' successors) Khaemwese and Merenptah, but the processional lists indicate Rameses II had at least 30 more sons and 30 daughters. Until the Theban Mapping Project discovered in 1995 that there was decoration on the walls of more than 100 chambers in KV 5, we knew little about Rameses II's children. Now, perhaps we can look forward to putting some flesh on the bones of the sons of Rameses II. Certainly one of the most interesting and important is the firstborn son, Amun-her-khepeshef.

The late Egyptologist Elizabeth Thomas argued that KV 5 was "the tomb of the royal children" mentioned in the Turin Papyrus, and that KV 5 belonged to royal sons. We now know that she was correct.

Q: Why do you think Rameses the Great's sons would have been honored with such an elaborate, labyrinthine tomb?

A: Kent Weeks Responds:

It may have been because Rameses was declared a god during his lifetime. And if he was, he was limited in what he could do in the secular world. A god couldn't very well go and cut ribbons, adjudicate cases and things like that. The sons would have.

Q: Do you think there could be a link between the Bible and Amun-her-khepeshef?

A: Kent Weeks Responds:

Amun-her-khepeshef's life could be one of history's most fascinating — if only there were more information available. If the Bible is correct and a series of plagues actually brought about an exodus of Jews from Egypt, and if the Exodus took place in the reign of Rameses II, then Amun-her-khepeshef may have been killed by the 10th plague that God visited on Egypt. Amun-her-khepeshef was buried in KV 5, and medical studies may prove that one of the bodies we have found there may be his.

Q: You have been devoted to the excavation of KV 5 for more than a decade. When do you expect to complete your work there?

A: Kent Weeks Responds:

Every generation of Egyptologists asks different questions of its data, and data are a finite resource. We will leave parts of KV 5 undug so that archaeologists of the future, armed with new questions and new excavation techniques, can seek new answers to old questions and to others we haven't even dreamed of.

Q: Why is the work of the Theban Mapping Project so important?

A: Kent Weeks Responds:

Thebes is one of the world's most important archaeological zones. Sadly, however, it has not fared well over the years. Treasure hunters and curio seekers plundered it in the past; pollution, rising groundwater and mass tourism threaten it in the present. Even early archaeologists destroyed valuable information in their search for museum-quality pieces.

Today, however, we realize the monuments of Thebes are a finite resource. If we fail to protect and monitor them, they will vanish, and we and our descendants will all be the poorer. The Theban Mapping Project believes that the first and most essential step in preserving this heritage is a detailed map and database of every archaeological, geological and ethnographic feature in Thebes. Only when these are available can sensible plans be made for tourism, conservation and further study.

Q: You're known internationally as one of the foremost authorities of Egyptology, and your achievements include what some regard as the most important finds of the 20th century. How did you become so interested in archaeology and specifically Egypt?

A: Kent Weeks Responds:

I've been fascinated with Egypt since childhood. When I was 8 years old, I saw Abbott & Costello Meet the Mummy, which further fueled my passion for the subject. I just read everything I could get my hands on.

Q: And now you're unraveling a 3,000-year-old mystery ...

A: Kent Weeks Responds:

Most of the archaeologists I know love detective stories. Our work is so similar. We examine the evidence, reconstruct who did what and piece together a sequence of events.

Q: So can you estimate how many of Rameses' children are buried in there, and the purposes of all the rooms in this massive mausoleum?

A: Kent Weeks Responds:

I wake up at 3 in the morning and think, "What's going on here?" Every time I think I know, the tomb surprises me.

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Amun-her-shepeshef, First Son of Ramesses II

by Jimmy Dunn, Tour Egypt.net

The First son of born to Ramesses the Great, was Amun-her-wenemef, meaning Amun Is on His Right Hand". The child's mother was Ramesses II's Great Wife, Nefertari. Had he outlived his father, he would have therefore become Pharaoh, the King of Egypt. Amun-her-wenemef came into the world while his father was still co-regent to his father, Seti I. Therefore, Amun-her-wenemef probably was the current king's first grandson.

When Ramesses II Ascended the throne of Egypt upon Set I's death, Amun-her-wenemef's name was changed to Amun-her-shepeshef, which means, "Amun Is with his Strong Arm". We do not know exactly why his name was changed, but it was not unique among Ramesses II's sons for him to do so, and he may have had other names as well. It was once thought that Seth-her-khepeshef was an individual son of Ramesses II, but current though on the matter is leaning to this being another name for Amun-her-shepeshef.

In fact, many names in the Egyptian royal family could change, for example, depending on what part of the country they were in. Hence, in Thebes, the prince might have been called Amun-her-khepeshef, but if he were in Memphis, where the principle god was Ptah, then he might have been called Ptah-her-khepeshef.

Amun-her-khepeshef had a number of titles, some of which were unique to him, as the heir apparent, but others that were shared by many of Ramesses II's other sons by principle wives. His titles included "Fan-bearer on the King's Right hand; Heir; Hereditary prince; Royal Scribe; Generalissimo (of His Majesty); Eldest and Bodily King;s Son; First King's Son; Commander of the Troops; Effective Confidant and Beloved of Him". He may have also had the titles, "Chief of the Secrets of the King's House; Lord in Charge of the Entire Land, Sem-priest of the Good God, Delegate and Judge of the Two lands, Controller of Lands Far-flung, if indeed he also has the name, Seth-her-khepeshef. These last titles were discovered on a stele in the eastern Delta site of Qantir.

Of all the sons, only he seems to have held the titles, "Effective Confidant" and "Commander of the Troops". Most of the other titles were held by one son or another. Of his unique titles, "Commander of the Troops" is the most interesting. Of course, the title indicates that he held a high military position, yet we hear little of him in battle after his father's early campaigns in Nubia and western Asia. He is depicted in battle within a number of well known scenes of the battle, but whether he actually took part in the military actions is still debated. Some Egyptologists believe he may have been a teenager, old enough to have actually took part in these battles. Others believe he was much younger and the scenes were only meant to enhance his image.

If he did take part in the battles, then he was in one of the best known campaigns in antiquity; the Battle of Kadesh. It was the first battle in history to have been well documented, because Ramesses II appears to have been very pleased with its victorious outcome, though if it was a glorious victory is more then a little debatable. However, it is very likely that Amun-her-khepeshef, along with his younger brother Khaemwese, did at least travel with their father to the battle, even if neither one of them physically engaged the enemy.

Amun-her-shepeshef is actually well attested in scenes, but many of them or simply processions of sons and sometimes daughters. He is shown in processions with other brothers or sisters at the Temple at Abu Simbel, the Temple of Seti I at Abydos, the Temple of Derr, Luxor Temple, where a number of scenes are found, the Ramesseum on the West Bank at Luxor (ancient Thebes), and at Wadi es-Sebua, where he is shown in procession in two scenes. However, he is shown in a number of scenes that are more action oriented, such as hunting scenes with his father and several other brothers. These scenes may be found at the Temple of Abu Simbel where he and two other brothers are shown in war chariots and at Beit el-Wadi, where he and Khaemwese are also shown in chariots. At Karnak he is with eleven other brothers handling prisoners, while there is a similar scene at Luxor but with fewer brothers.

Unfortunately, Amun-her-shepeshef did not outlive his father. He died in year 40 of his father's reign. Amun-her-shepeshef was probably between the age of 40 and 45. In fact, Ramesses II outlived his first twelve sons, with Merenptah, the thirteenth who may probably have been sixty at the time, finally succeeding him. We believe that Amun-her-shepeshef was buried in KV 5 in the Valley of the Kings on the West Bank at Luxor. This huge and utterly unique tomb with over 150 chambers was most likely built for at least three or four of Ramesses II's sons, if not many more. Excavation in the tomb continues under the direction of one of the living legends of modern Egyptology, Kent Weeks. I am sure we can count on Dr. Weeks to painstakingly dig out ever shred of information that the tomb may yield, so one day we may know much more about this young prince of Egypt.
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1 comentario

omar -

hola quiero saber mas de lo de egipto por favor si pueden mantenerme en contacto ya que estudio arqueologia
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